Too often the baking newbie is inundated by terms, terminology, and definitions that lack any useful metric.  Since this isn't a general education essay, I'm only going to focus on the flour that I use.  My primary baking focus is on sourdough breads.  And to that end I use and/or recommend these flours:

There are many more kinds of flours, but I've left them off as they're beyond the pale of this short note.  I use the ones listed above, and by varying the ratios of them in the dough (and the water), you'll change the result into the many different varieties of bread that are made.  If you want more details, go here.